Fatores associados à sobrecarga em cuidadores familiares na radioterapia

Daniel de Macêdo Rocha, Aliny de Oliveira Pedrosa, Aline Costa de Oliveira, Claudia Daniella Avelino Vasconcelos Benício, Ítalo Arão Pereira Ribeiro, Lídya Tolstenko Nogueira

Resumo


Objetivo: analisar os fatores associados à sobrecarga em cuidadores familiares de pacientes em tratamento radioterápico. Método: trata-se de estudo bibliográfico, tipo revisão integrativa da literatura, por meio da busca nas bases de dados MEDLINE, CINAHL, SCOPUS, Web of ScienceTM e LILACS. Compôs-se a amostra por 15 estudos primários, publicados até 2017, nos idiomas inglês, português e espanhol. Realizaram-se a análise crítica e a síntese dos resultados de forma descritiva, o que possibilitou a classificação por similaridade semântica e a construção de duas categorias temáticas. Apresentaram-se os resultados em forma de figuras. Resultados: verificou-se que os fatores associados à sobrecarga se relacionaram tanto aos pacientes quanto aos cuidadores, sendo eles o deficit do autocuidado, as condições clínicas, a alteração do sono e as pressões psicossociais. Identificaram-se, dentre as manifestações de sobrecarga, o estresse, a fadiga, a exaustão e a intensificação de sintomas depressivos e ansiosos. Conclusão: evidenciou-se que o tratamento radioterápico gera sobrecarga para os cuidadores familiares, sendo necessárias intervenções educativas, estratégias assistenciais e implementação de políticas públicas de saúde para a minimização desses efeitos. Descritores: Neoplasia; Radioterapia; Cuidador Familiar; Ônus da Doneça; Enfermagem; Cuidados de Enfermagem.

ABSTRACT

Objective: to analyze the factors associated with overload in family caregivers of patients undergoing radiotherapy treatment. Method: this is a bibliographic study, integrative literature review type, by searching the databases MEDLINE, CINAHL, SCOPUS, Web of ScienceTM and LILACS. The sample consisted of 15 primary studies, published until 2017, in English, Portuguese and Spanish. Critical analysis and synthesis of the results were performed descriptively, which allowed the classification by semantic similarity and the construction of two thematic categories. The results were presented as figures. Results: it was found that factors associated with overload were related to both patients and caregivers, such as self-care deficit, clinical conditions, sleep disturbance and psychosocial pressures. Among the manifestations of overload, stress, fatigue, exhaustion and intensification of depressive and anxious symptoms were identified. Conclusion: it was evidenced that radiotherapy treatment generates overload for family caregivers, requiring educational interventions, care strategies and implementation of public health policies to minimize these effects. Descriptors: Neoplasms; Radiotherapy; Family Caregivers; Cost of Illness; Nursing; Nursing Care.

RESUMEN

Objetivo: analizar los factores asociados con la sobrecarga en cuidadores familiares de pacientes sometidos a tratamiento de radioterapia. Método: este es un estudio bibliográfico, tipo de revisión de literatura integradora, mediante la búsqueda en las bases de datos MEDLINE, CINAHL, SCOPUS, Web ofScienceTM y LILACS. La muestra consistió en 15 estudios primarios, publicados hasta 2017, en inglés, portugués y español. El análisis crítico y la síntesis de los resultados se realizaron de forma descriptiva, lo que permitió la clasificación por similitud semántica y la construcción de dos categorías temáticas. Los resultados se presentaron en forma de figuras. Resultados: se encontró que los factores asociados con la sobrecarga estaban relacionados tanto con los pacientes como con los cuidadores, siendo ellos el déficit de autocuidado, las condiciones clínicas, los trastornos del sueño y las presiones psicosociales. Entre las manifestaciones de sobrecarga, se identificaron estrés, fatiga, agotamiento e intensificación de síntomas depresivos y ansiosos. Conclusión: se evidenció que el tratamiento con radioterapia genera una sobrecarga para los cuidadores familiares, que requiere intervenciones educativas, estrategias de atención e implementación de políticas de salud pública para minimizar estos efectos. Descriptores: Neoplasias; Radioterapia; Cuidador Familiar; Costo de Enfermedad; Enfermería; Atención de Enfermería.


Palavras-chave


Neoplasia; Radioterapia; Cuidadores; Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença; Enfermagem; Cuidados de enfermagem

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.5205/1981-8963.2019.241472



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Esta obra está licenciada sob uma licença Creative Commons Atribuição 4.0 Internacional.

 

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