Sobre Naturalismos, Resistências Humanistas e a possibilidade de diálogo

Gabriel José Corrêa Mograbi

Resumo


Resumo: O artigo compreende três partes complementares. Na primeira, trata-se da obra metodológica de Émile Zola “Le Roman Expérimental” e da tessitura conceitual extremamente naturalista que a guia. Ainda nesta primeira parte, foca-se no tipo de resistência que tal obra teve por parte de Ortega y Gasset, escolhido aqui como o típico e, quiçá, caricatural pensador humanista. que repudia qualquer tipo de naturalismo. A segunda parte vai se debruçar sobre nosso tema principal: os estudos literários darwinistas e sua recepção negativa por alguns literatos. Comparações entre os projetos naturalistas do passado e do presente são feitas visando mostrar que: a) o projeto de Zola foi uma forma muito mais radical de naturalismo; b) Estudos evolutivos da literatura estão longe de ser reducionistas neste sentido radical do termo e c) o tipo de resistência dos atuais humanistas ao naturalismo é baseado em formas de corporativismo nas humanidades ou em medos irracionais. A terceira parte, no entanto, busca mostrar algumas das verdadeiras limitações dos estudos evolutivos da literatura e oferecer uma pista do que seria agenda programática para a superação de pelo menos parte dessas fragilidades.

Palavras-chave: Naturalismo; Estudos Evolutivos Literários; Filosofia da Biologia.

 


Abstract: This paper has three complementary parts. The first, focuses on the methodological work of Émile Zola “Le Roman Expérimental” and its extremely naturalist conceptual network. Also, it approaches the kind of resistance that such work has received from Ortega y Gasset, chosen here as the typical and perhaps caricatural humanist thinker who rejects any kind of naturalism. The second part addresses our main issue the so-called “evolutionary studies of literature” and its negative reception by some literary scholars. Comparisons between past and present naturalist projects are made in order to show that a) Zola's project was a much more radical form of reductionism; b) evolutionary studies of literature are far from being reductionist in that radical sense of the term and c) the type of resistance of current humanists towards naturalism is mostly based on forms of departmental corporatism in humanities or irrational fears. The third part envisages showing part of the real limitations of evolutionary studies in literature and offers a hint of a programmatic agenda to overcome, at least, part of such fragilities.

Keywords: Naturalism; Evolutionary Studies of Literature; Philosophy of Biology.


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Referências


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.19134/eutomia-v1i14p419-445

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