Avaliação e intervenção do equilíbrio em idosos

Jéssica Resende Del’Olmo Bennett, Ivânia Vêra, Kamylla Guedes de Sena, Moisés Fernandes Lemos, Roselma Lucchese, Graciele Cristina Silva

Resumo


RESUMO

Objetivo: apresentar quais instrumentos e técnicas são utilizados em idosos com vistas à melhoria do equilíbrio e da postura. Método: revisão integrativa com pesquisas originais publicadas nos últimos dez anos. Utilizaram-se, para as buscas, os descritores Aged”, “Postural Balance” e “Activities of Daily Living” nas bases de dados LILACS, PubMed/MEDLINE e na biblioteca virtual SciELO. Sintetizaram-se os artigos selecionados após preencherem os critérios de inclusão   classificando-os por meio do nível de evidência em um total de 36 estudos. Resultados: identificaram-se 75 instrumentos de avaliação. Destes, o Mini Exame do Estado Mental, a Escala de Equilíbrio de Berg e o Teste Time up and Go foram os mais utilizados e com melhores indicações de seu uso. Conclusão: inúmeros são os instrumentos utilizados para avaliar o equilíbrio e a mobilidade de idosos revelando que apenas um meio de avaliação não é eficaz para avaliar todas as vertentes que envolvem o deficit de equilíbrio. Necessita-se associar dois ou mais instrumentos de avaliação, a fim de proporcionar um resultado mais fidedigno, com vistas a serem traçados objetivos e intervenções adequados na identificação dos fatores de risco e proposição de intervenções preventivas e de promoção à saúde. Descritores: Idoso; Equilíbrio Postural; Atividades Cotidianas; Limitação da Mobilidade; Fatores de Risco; Saúde Pública.

ABSTRACT

Objective: to present which instruments and techniques are used in the elderly to improve balance and posture. Method: integrative review, with original research published over the last ten years. The descriptors "Aged", "Postural Balance" and "Activities of Daily Living" were used in the searches: LILACS, PubMed / MEDLINE and SciELO virtual library. The selected articles were synthesized after fulfilling the inclusion criteria and were classified through the level of evidence, totaling 36 studies. Results: in the face of the research, 75 assessment instruments were identified, of which the Mini Mental State Exam, Berg Balance Scale and Time Up and Go Test were the most used and with better indications of their use. Conclusion: a number of instruments are used to assess the balance and mobility of the elderly, revealing that only one method of evaluation is not effective in assessing all aspects of equilibrium deficits. It is necessary to associate two or more assessment instruments in order to provide a more reliable result, with a view to establishing appropriate objectives and interventions, identifying risk factors and proposing preventive and health promotion interventions. Descriptors: Aged; Postural Balance; Activities of Daily Living; Mobility Limitation; Risk Factors; Public Health.

RESUMEN

Objetivo: presentar cuales instrumentos y técnicas se utilizan en ancianos con miras a mejora del equilibrio y de la postura. Método: revisión integrativa, con investigaciones originales publicadas en los últimos 10 años. Se utilizó para las búsquedas los descriptores "Aged", "Postural Balance" y "Actividades del Daily Living" en las bases de datos: LILACS, PubMed / MEDLINE y biblioteca virtual SciELO. Se sintetizaron los artículos seleccionados después de llenar los criterios de inclusión y se clasificaron a través del nivel de evidencia, totalizando 36 estudios. Resultados: en la investigación se identificaron 75 instrumentos de evaluación, de los cuales el Mini Examen del Estado Mental, Escala de Equilibrio de Berg y la Prueba Time up and Go fueron los más utilizados y con mejores indicaciones de su uso. Conclusión: numerosos son los instrumentos utilizados para evaluar el equilibrio y la movilidad de ancianos, revelando que sólo un medio de evaluación no es eficaz para evaluar todos los aspectos que implican el déficit de equilibrio. Se requiere asociar dos o más instrumentos de evaluación a fin de proporcionar un resultado más fidedigno, con miras a ser trazados objetivos e intervenciones adecuadas, en la identificación de los factores de riesgo y proposición de intervenciones preventivas y de promoción a la salud. Descriptores: Anciano; Balance Postural; Actividades Cotidianas; Limitación de la Movilidad; Factores de Riesgo; Salud Pública.


Palavras-chave


Idoso; Equilíbrio Postural; Atividades Cotidianas; Limitação da Mobilidade; Fatores de Risco; Saúde Pública.

Texto completo:

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.5205/1981-8963-v12i9a234724p2479-2499-2018



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