Fatores associados à experimentação do tabaco entre escolares adolescentes

Maria Cristina Pinto de Jesus, Vanessa Augusta Souza Braga, Ediane Mendes Lins, Rodolfo Ribeiro de Jesus, Fabiana de Oliveira Freitas, Marcelo Henrique da Silva, Miriam Aparecida Barbosa Merighi

Resumo


Objetivo: identificar os fatores associados à experimentação do tabaco entre adolescentes do Ensino Fundamental. Método: trata-se de estudo quantitativo, descritivo e exploratório, com 186 participantes entre os 11 aos 19 anos de idade de uma escola pública do Ensino Fundamental. Preencheu-se um questionário autoaplicável estruturado, com itens do instrumento “California Tobacco Survey 2015-2016”, adaptado para o contexto brasileiro. Organizaram-se os dados em planilha eletrônica do Microsoft Excel 2010 para posterior análise descritiva e estatística, com o auxílio do SPSS. Resultados: relatou-se, pela maioria, ter amigos que fumam e que não é permitido fumar em suas casas. Evidenciou-se que a idade, o ano escolar e o número de amigos que fumam foram os aspectos significativamente associados à experimentação de produtos do tabaco. Conclusão: salienta-se que esses resultados podem se constituir em elementos que subsidiem programas educacionais antitabagismo nas escolas, e contribuir para o fomento de políticas públicas voltadas para a prevenção do contato de adolescentes com os produtos do tabaco, de modo a impactar positivamente a saúde dos jovens e diminuir a possibilidade da experimentação de drogas ilícitas. Descritores: Adolescente; Tabaco; Comportamento do Adolescente; Fatores de Risco; Escolas; Saúde Pública.

Abstract

Objective: to identify factors associated with tobacco experimentation among elementary school adolescents. Method: this is a quantitative, descriptive and exploratory study, with 186 participants between 11 and 19 years old from a public elementary school. A self-administered structured questionnaire was filled out with items from the “California Tobacco Survey 2015-2016” instrument, adapted to the Brazilian context. The data was organized in a Microsoft Excel 2010 spreadsheet for further descriptive and statistical analysis, with the help of SPSS. Results: it was reported, by the majority, to have friends who smoke and that smoking is not allowed in their homes. It was found that age, school year and the number of friends who smoke were aspects significantly associated with experimenting with tobacco products. Conclusion: it is emphasized that these results can constitute elements that subsidize educational anti-smoking programs in schools, and contribute to the promotion of public policies aimed at preventing the contact of adolescents with tobacco products, in order to positively impact health of young people and decrease the possibility of experimenting with illicit drugs. Descriptors: Adolescent; Tobacco; Adolescent Behavior; Risk Factors; Schools; Public Health.

Resumen

Objetivo: identificar los factores asociados con la experimentación de tabaco entre los adolescentes de primaria. Método: este es un estudio cuantitativo, descriptivo y exploratorio, con 186 participantes de entre 11 y 19 años de una escuela primaria pública. Se rellenó un cuestionario estructurado autoadministrado con elementos del instrumento "California Tobacco Survey 2015-2016", adaptado al contexto brasileño. Los datos se organizaron en una hoja de cálculo de Microsoft Excel 2010 para su posterior análisis descriptivo y estadístico, con la ayuda de SPSS. Resultados: se informó, por mayoría, tener amigos que fuman y que no está permitido fumar en sus hogares. Se descubrió que la edad, el año escolar y la cantidad de amigos que fuman eran aspectos significativamente asociados con la experimentación de productos de tabaco. Conclusión: se enfatiza que estos resultados pueden constituir elementos que subsidian los programas educativos contra el tabaquismo en las escuelas y contribuyen a la promoción de políticas públicas destinadas a prevenir el contacto de los adolescentes con los productos del tabaco, a fin de impactar positivamente la salud de los jóvenes y reducir la posibilidad de experimentar drogas ilícitas. Descriptores: Adolescente; Tabaco; Conducta del Adolescente; Factores de Riesgo; Escuelas; Salud Pública.


Palavras-chave


Adolescente; Tabaco; Comportamento do Adolescente; Fatores de risco; Escolas; Saúde Pública.

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.5205/1981-8963.2020.244043



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