Movimentos sociais, frames e cognição: uma revisão crítica, Teun A. van Dijk

Leonardo Mozdzenzki, Laura Jorge Nogueira Cavalcanti, Adriano Dias de Andrade

Resumo


Como parte de uma série de revisões críticas nas pesquisas acerca dos frames em estudos sobre movimentos sociais, este artigo examina os aspectos cognitivos dos movimentos sociais. Após um breve resumo sobre alguns conceitos da teoria cognitiva, apresentando noções como modelos mentais, conhecimento socialmente partilhado, atitudes e ideologias, os aspectos cognitivos de alguns estudos sobre frames de movimentos sociais serão criticamente revisados. Primeiramente, estabelece-se que, embora tenha sido escolhida uma perspectiva cognitiva na definição de frames como “enquadres interpretativos” – como em Goffman (1974) –, não será desenvolvida aqui nenhuma definição ou elaboração mais aprofundada sobre a natureza cognitiva, as estruturas e funções desses frames. O que será mostrado é que sempre que os frames são usados para descrever ou explicar formas de cognição, na verdade, outras noções estão sendo referidas, tais como objetivos, valores e ideologias e, dessa forma estão sendo obscurecidas. Mais especificamente, este trabalho se concentra em alguns estudos sobre movimentos sociais que abordam ideologias e conclui que essas pesquisas são influenciadas apenas tangencialmente por estudos sobre ideologia em outras áreas. Isso repercute especialmente no caso de estudos acerca da estrutura e das funções do conhecimento dos movimentos sociais – uma perspectiva praticamente ignorada nos estudos de frames de movimentos sociais e apenas marginalmente tratada dentro de uma sociologia do conhecimento dos movimentos sociais. Em resumo, o estudo dos aspectos cognitivos dos movimentos sociais ainda está na sua infância, e os estudos de frames quase não contribuem para essa abordagem.

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